Bed Bugs

Bedbugs are arthropod ectoparasites temporary bloodsucking habits tend night. One of the most important species in a profile of sanitation is bedbug. Bedbug that currently is becoming a real pandemic in different areas of the world.

It ‘a apterous hemiptera, which is about 2.8 to 4 mm, with flattened body and brownish. It has a distinctive mouthparts, biting and sucking, formed by the mandibles and jaws stilettiforms accepted in the shower formed from the lip. The entire structure is arranged, in a rest position, horizontally below the body.20160219_pest_art_01

Bedbugs have the right to issue a strong sweet smell and nauseous through their glands. So, often, a highly infested by these arthropods may be recognized by the distinctive odor. Its negative phototropism in this arthropod determines the need to hide during the day in areas with no light the house: cracks or cracks in the walls, cavity floors, behind furniture, in the paper wallpaper, etc. Night comes out from his hiding places to feed on the blood of their hosts.

Life Cycle

The adult female fertilized replete and blood starts to lay, after about 3 – 6 days, from 6 to 10 eggs pearly white, elongated form (1 mm long) and provided with operculum. The egg-laying takes about six days. An adult female feeds on average every 3-4 days and every week lays from 3 to 8 eggs. During its life a female can produce up to 540 eggs. Embryonic development takes about 4-12 days; successive five nymphal stages, each lasting 2.5 to 10 days. CZ0RYZQRKHYLDLQZTLQZPLHZULMRNLMZRHSR6LQR6LFLELHZCZFL2LJLCZ0RRHKZRH5R1LXZAL6RSHQZAL2RBLGRSHDepending on the temperature the complete development from egg to adult occurs in about 24 days, with temperatures of 30 ° C, up to dilate the 128 days to temperatures of 18 ° C. At low temperatures, the nymphs can withstand and survive for 5-6 months without feeding, whereas adults can survive even longer.

Health problems

Bedbugs feed on humans via the traumatic action of their stilettos thin and sharp. The puncture is painless, because of a powerful anesthetic present in the saliva. Moreover the enzymes anticoagulants in it, inhibiting the conversion of factor X to factor Xa, determine the leakage copious blood that is readily sucked. Bedbug bites can cause the onset of phenomena ipersenbilità to salivary components. Thus they are forming itchy papules that may be isolated or grouped in a limited area, usually on the arms, on the trunk or face. If disturbed the insect can interrupt the meal and sting again in the immediate vicinity. They are thus to form different characteristic lesions arranged along a straight line. In some cases this can cause hypersensitivity reactions of generalized type, up to anaphylaxis.


Bed bugs are a huge problem of sanitation and image especially for holiday sites such as hotels, hostels, nursing homes, but also trains, ships, etc. The problem “bugs” – and therefore the difficulty in revealing early infestation – is related to the presence of the nymphs of this insect, that of young people, newly hatched, are almost invisible to the naked eye. It ‘just this great diagnostic difficulties: being able to reveal the presence of nymphs before they become adults and reproduce then again infesting massively environment. When we notice the presence of the adult bugs, clearly visible to the naked eye, the environment is now full of these insects.8269388777_44fc319462

To reveal the presence can be used all’EDPAI (Direct Examination Powder Environmental Industry) which is the only diagnostic tool that can detect them before they reproduce massively and cause skin lesions evident and repeated. Through EDPAI are revealed traces of bugs in the environment, they are identified outbreaks, the most at risk, those intact and those who, instead, must necessarily be treated. It is thus possible to perform treatments targeted much more effective, less costly, but above all, less polluting. And what is more important, you will have a scientific solution to the problem, with considerable reduction in image damage feared that would inevitably reflected on the economy of the structure.

Control and monitoring systems

The fight against this insect can be difficult if it is not dealt with a strict protocol that can prevent the deterioration of ‘infestation.


The detection of an infestation of bed bugs is not easily detectable in the early stages because the amount of insects is minimal and do not release traces. Consider that the infestation often part for the transport of even a single specimen into the environment. Based on knowledge of the normal behavior of the bed bugs, they have been developed different glue traps for the monitoring of these insects.

Proper placement of the traps, bedbugs provides a perfect refuge near their potential guest. The monitoring traps, thanks to their reduced dimensions, can be positioned at discrete points and not visible. The trap can be easily inspected. Regular checks, based on the research of the tracks and the specimens themselves, to identify the first signs of infestation and to plan interventions of pest control based on the data obtained. When the traps are positioned successively in a disinfestation operation, allow to verify the outcome and the success of the treatment.

Detection with dogs

In recent years some companies disinfestation following the trend are specializing in American detention canine to detect the presence of bed bugs. The dogs are usually trained in a particular way and with extreme accuracy for the detection of bed bugs. These dogs recognize the odor of insects, larvae and eggs and come to distinguish between live insects and even detect the smell of residues that they leave behind (skins and feces). Once the dog alerted the presence of bedbugs, the conductor will tell the owner the detection zone in order to allow him to organize a pest.

Disinfestation traditional insecticide solution

The use of traditional chemical insecticides in the fight against bed bugs has several limitations and poses problems:

• the need to leave ventilate the environments treated for several hours

• inability to reach the most inaccessible places

• resistance of bedbugs against certain active

• no effect on eggs

Despite these weaknesses, it can sometimes be necessary the execution of chemical treatments if a careful choice of the formulations and of the active ingredients.


This is a recent methodology of intervention that combines the efficacy and safety of the treatment. In practice it is not used any chemical insecticide, but only dry steam heated to about 180 ° which kills all stages of the parasite, including eggs. The environments are also accessible immediately after surgery. The fight against bedbug always requires a plan of action: it will be difficult to solve an infestation with only one treatment; depending on the degree of infestation detected during the inspections will be possible to estimate a number of necessary interventions.

Heat treatment

The treatment is to increase progressively the temperature of a room to 60 ° C and keep it stable for about 4/5 hour, until all the bugs died. This treatment is able to kill the insect, the larvae and eggs, and is very effective but it can only be done by professionals with the proper equipment.

Cold Treatment

This treatment for the disinfection of bed bugs involves the use of liquid at very low temperatures that are vaporized on the areas to be treated. Exposure to cold weather kills the insects and their eggs immediately. This treatment should be applied manually by professional.   Concluding no way to completely protect against infestation by bed bugs, but to use simple precautions to be taken while traveling, especially abroad. When you come back from a trip or a night away from home, always carefully inspect both the suitcase contents. If you think you have detected the presence of bed bugs and fear or want to prevent an infestation, contact your exterminator reference! Early detection is the best way to prevent them from spreading. This is not a parasite that can be fought with systems do-it-yourself!


Mario Alessi